• Filigree Freeform Facades

    Design research into the possibilities of 3D concrete printed facades

    Juliette Bekkering has led the research with TU Eindhoven's Department of Architecture and Engineering,  Neutelings Riedijk Architects and Vertico into the possibilities of 3D  concrete printing on circular double curved surfaces.  The research focused primarily on exploring  aesthetical and technical feasibility of double-curved facades with filigree infill.  By combining designer skills with technical skills a unique visual language has been developped

    Together with Neutelings Riedijk Architects, TU Eindhoven’s Department of Architecture and Engineering and the specialised 3DCprinting company Vertico, Juliette Bekkering has explored the  possibilities of 3D concrete printing on double curved circular moulds. The research focused primarily on the technical feasibility of double-curved facades with filigree infill. It is a continuation of the ongoing research into 3DCP Juliette Bekkering has been doing in the past 7 years. With Cristina Nan the design proposals were translated into a series of so called 'lenses" .

    Circular moulds made of sand

    For a year, all parties involved investigated the architectural possibilities of 3DConcrete Printing (3DCP) on circular double-curved moulds. Central to this research was that both the architectural possibilities were explored, i.e. how the typical properties of the 3DCP technique can lead to an appealing image and a new expression in architecture, and the technique was developed to actually make it. Robots were used to make circular moulds of sand, formed into a double-curved bed on which the concrete elements were printed.

    From raw material to fascinating expression

    With 3DCP, unique patterns and decorations can be easily realised without labour-intensive processes and waste. We were fascinated by the possibility of printing filigree patterns, concrete-like lacework that can be used to create facades and translucent interior walls. A whole range of new architectural expressions can be created using this technique: a visual language that has been applied more often by Neutelings Riedijk Architects.


    Methodology for circular construction


    The research focuses on the need for circular construction, reducing the use of raw materials for concrete formwork and developing optimised strategies for pouring material to reduce the use of concrete. The research investigates the use of robotically formed sand formwork, through which it avoids the need for wooden scaffolding, plastic or foam-based formwork for pouring concrete.

    The research was presented in detail during Dutch Design Week 2023 in Eindhoven.



    Funding Body:
    Dutch Research Council (NWO): KIEM-CE Grant
    2022 — 2023

    Eindhoven University of Technology, faculty of the built environment — Chair of Architectural Design and Engineering ADE: Prof. Juliette Bekkering, Architect, Assist. Prof. Cristina Nan  computational design and digital fabrication specialist)

    Neuteling Riedijk Architects: Michiel Riedijk, Founder Architect; Chaoyu Huang, Alexandra Gwardiak, Architects

    Vertico — 3D Concrete Printing Specialists: Volker Ruitinga, Founder; Kees Leemeijer, Robotic Fabrication Engineer;  Orestis Pavlidis, Robotic Fabrication Engineer

    Researcher: Alessio Vigorito, structural engineer

    Supported by 
    Betonhuis, Cindy Vissering

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  • Making Architecture lecture by Carlijn Kingma and Wessel van Beerendonk

    Making Architecture lecture Carlijn Kingma and Wessel van BeerendonkMAKING ARCHITECTURE is the yearly event organized by study association for urbanism and architecture AnArchi and Juliette Bekkering, head of the chair Architectural Design and Engineering at the TU Eindhoven.

    Link to the livestream: www.youtube.com/@studyassociationanarchi1393/streams

    This year’s Making Architecture lecture series highlights alternative ways of practicing architecture with the theme ‘The other office’. The first lecture took place on February 8th in the Trappenzaal, in Vertigo.


     Speakers: Carlijn Kingma and Wessel van Beerendonk

    Carlijn Kingma graduated in 2016 from Delft University of Technology at the faculty of Architecture, where she won the New Babylon Award, the award for the best architecture graduation projects at TU Delft.  Her drawings reflect, admire or question the mystical and complex world around us. Her work was exhibited in Kunstmuseum Den Haag, and when she won the Architecture Drawing Prize, it was also exhibited in the Sir John Soan’s Museum in London. Currently, you can visit Rijksmuseum Twentheto see her take on the distribution of wealth in society. Her drawings metaphorically picture money as water and where it flows. 

    Wessel van Beerendonk is architect and co-founder of Studio RAP. Studio RAP is an award-winning architectural design and fabrication  studio. RAP’s design process uses innovative design and production techniques, developed in their studio and robotic lab. RAP thereby redefines the role of the contemporary architect. Using digital fabrication, especially robot-assisted production methods, RAP appropriates the role of digital architect. RAP’s designs are characterized by expressive unique and diverse forms that are sustainably produced or assembled using digital fabrication technology. 



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We are an internationally operating, dynamic and versatile architectural office, looking and working with an open mind towards our future society.  With an enthusiastic team of architects and designers we work on innovative and sustainable projects with a strong identity, defined by expressive architecture with a tactile expression of material and detail.


Mathenesserlaan 257
3021HD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
T: 00 31 6 510 67480

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